important element that is affecting on listening comprehension regardless the common believes about facilitate it with different rate of speech.
۲.۱What is listening?
Listening is the essential skills for developing second language acquisition (SLA).Although second language learners notice the listening as the most difficult language but is a highly complex problem-solving skill that requires connecting meaning to the stearm of speech sounds that is influenced by various factors. A listener have to form a different tasks for comprehending speech in second language. According to (Bacon, 1989; Shrum and Glisan, 1999) said that he/she depend on different kinds of knowledge such as lexical knowledge, grammatical knowledge and socio cultural knowledge. According to Than jar(2000:16) the people also requires ability to organize and remember what is present by giving ”conscious attention the sounds for the aim of getting meaning ”and ”by spending sufficient time to make sure that comprehension and intake of the second-language information takes place”. Although time is used little for listeners to reflect on the information and have conditions to ask for repetition. There for those aspects of listening and other aspects, there has not sufficient research in the field of listening. Rubin (1995) contended that ”Listening is a conceal activity and has heavy processing demands”. Listeners require to effort to make the sense of information and internalized it. Witking (1990) said that one of the problems about the listening research is the lack of consensus on the definition of listening. Byrnes (1984, p. 318) said that although listening literature in the past decades has attempted to unify all components of listening found in related studies and to formulate a common base for a definition of a listening, the conceptualization of listening still needs more research since listening is a “high-complex problem solving activity” it can `decayed a set of distinct sub-skills. Coakley and Wolvin (1986, p.15) said that the stem of the difficulty in defining listening is in part from the complex relationship between listening skills and thinking skills since “the emphasis on comprehension in the tests used to measure listening skills illustrates how closely listening skills are related to thinking skills”. According to (Rubin, 1994) the importance of teaching listening comprehension in the language classroom has a essential for foreign language teachers and researchers for a long time and this attention has an increased number of listening activities in students’ textbooks. In the fact that listening required investigated as a part of language teaching programs for various interpretive and evaluative purposes .The fact that happening listening comprehension in the mind and it is not directly observed the problems for test of language . The test of Listening should get the test takers for doing something for describing comprehension. Therefore, there is often a situation in various skills are gain and responses involve skills other than listening comprehension. Researchers expressed about the defining listening, some others introduced describing of listening from different aspects. According to Purdy (1991, p. 11) listening as “the active and dynamic process of attending, perceiving, interpreting, remembering, and responding to the expressed (verbal and nonverbal) needs, concerns, and information offered by other human beings”. According to Carroll (1993, p. 364) listening as some activities that involve “the individual’s capacity to apprehend, recognize, discriminate or even ignore”. According to Rubin (1995 ,p. 151)said that listening as “an active process in which a listener selects and interprets information which comes from auditory and visual clues in order to define what is going on and what the speakers are trying to express”. According to Lewkowicz (1981) the listener uses not only his knowledge of the language in the form of speaking but also have a knowledge of the outside world and how it relates to the subject , as well as interpretation of what is said so far, in order to comprehend the message. According to (Hafernic and Surguine, 1979, p.341). If the goal of an ESL program is” to prepare our students to cope with English outside the classroom”. According to (Bacon, 1998; Robinett, 1978; Ur, 1984) teachers try to avoid speech modification or simplification and to provide students with the kind of language they are likely to counter in real-life situations. In this review, an important study in the literature on L2 listening comprehension and teaching listening explored.
۲.۲ Historical over view of listening comprehension
Research on L2 listening comprehension process refer to over the past decay. Listening comprehension was attracted attention of both theory &practice when other skills like (I, e, reading, writing and speaking) have direct attention. According to (Mendelsohn,1984;oxford,1993) teachers often expect the learners to develop the listening comprehension by osmosis and without help, this approach according to Medelsohn (1984) is similar to Audio lingual method believe that the learners could improve their listening comprehension in target language by the experience and listening to target language all day long. Call (1985) believe that listening comprehension neglected or poorly taught may have stem from the belief that it is a passive skill and it just exposing the learners to spoken language provides instruction in listening comprehension . Audiolingualism is related to 20th century was important influence on theories of language teaching. Then continue this view with Behaviorists drew from Palov’s conditioning that develop the behavior in term of stimulus and response .The researchers explained that language development is in a same way .About the traditional approach of listening comprehension, according to (Meyer,1984, p.343) it is a skill for production -oriented activities, ”has trapped students in a frenzied ‘hear it, repeat it , hear it, answer it , or hear it , translate it!’ nightmare”. Also according to (Morley, 2001)in English language teaching American Audiolingual Approach ,program of the British Situational Approach didn’t pay attention to listening beyond its role in grammar and pronunciation drills and learners imitation of dialogues during the1940s,1950s, and1960s. Discussion about the listening comprehension was began in the mid-1960s by Rivers that according to (Morley, 2001, p.70) who has been ”long an advocate for listening comprehension”. Rivers (1966, p.196) said that ” speaking does not of itself constitute communication unless what is being said is comprehended by another person” and that ”Teaching the comprehension of spoken speeches is therefore of primary importance if the communication aim is to be reached” (p.204).In 1969 there was another events held in England, Cambridge that was the second AILA (International Association of Applied Linguistics)..In1970 listening comprehension began to change and that programs focus on pragmatic skills include listening as well as reading, writing, speaking. In 1980 researchers interested in investigation of complex skill, theory building, more research and development of listening comprehension. During the 1990s, focus on listening comprehension in language teaching through dramatically. Now listening comprehension investigate as an active skill that includes many process. According to Carrier(1999) contended that research in L2 listening focused on identify that some aspects involved in process of listening comprehension and how different factors influence the product of listening. Lewkowicz (1981) said that listener utilizes not only his knowledge of the language being spoken but also his knowledge of the outside world and how it relates to the topic at hand, as well as his interpretation of what has been said so far, in order to comprehend the message. According to Brown (1987) discovered expensive number of published courses on listening comprehension and practice in the classroom in many countries to describe that listening is the least important skill in language teaching.
۲.۳ Theory of listening comprehension
Listening considered from a perspective in recent years .It is the Cinderella skill in second language learning that often it has over looked by the elder sister, speaking. For many people knowledge of second language means that they can speak and write therefore listening and reading has in the secondary skill for them .The learners not only to comprehend the information but also learn the language. Theory of listening skills determine listening attentiveness, aim of communication strategy ,use of meanings and meta communication strategies .Theories of listening focus on three level: