competitive(avoiding criticism), passive (polite audience ,rely on assumption) &active or reflective listening (using question, paraphrasing, point of comparison). Other model including empathtic (communicating and reflecting emotions) & facilitative listening (dialogue partner, creat meaning and understanding) .Since listening provide input and learners receive language learning. There is the essential question, how can attend to the language listeners hears, facilitate second language learning? This speak about the role ”noticing” and conscious awareness of from of language and how attention to the part of the process by the learners that incorporate new forms of words and developing communicative competence that structure there.

۲.۴ Listening strategies
Listening is no longer taken for assigned in second language learning after the appearance of communicative and proficiency approaches to language teaching, which highlighted listening in all levels of language learning. Several foreign language teaching methods spoke about the importance of listening back in 1960s. Previous L2 listening research manifest that learners need to develop certain Previous research such as (Baker & Brown, 1984; O’Malley & Chamot, 1990; Rubin, 1987) said that more-skilled learners use more meta cognitive strategies (i.e. planning, self-monitoring, and self-evaluation) than less skilled learners . According to (Malley, Chamot, Manzanares, Kupper and Russo’s;1985)study high school ESL students were accidently assigned to receive learning strategy training on vocabulary, listening and Speaking tasks. Nakata (1985) investigated that the influence of listening strategy training on Japanese EFL learners listening competence, and it indicated that the effect of listening strategy training was more clear on perception than on comprehension, especially for some students who gave low scores on the G-TELP. Vandergrift (1999) studied the strategy development important for listening training because strategies are conscious means by which learners can guide and evaluate their own comprehension and response. Brown(1995)said that strategies are specific method of approaching a problem task, modes of works for successful a particular end, planned designs for controlling and manipulating certain information, they are contextualized ,battle plans that might different from moment to moment, or day to day, year to year (p.104.). According to o’Malley and Chamot (1990) said about three types of strategies: meta cognitive, cognitive, social strategies. Thompsor & Rubin (1996) said that the effects of Meta-cognitive &cognitive strategy instruction on listening comprehension performance on American university students learning Russian. According to Vandegrift (2003) said about the social and affective strategies that was the techniques listeners used to collaborate with others, different understanding or to lower anxiety. According to Ellis (1985;181)said that communication strategies are employed by the learner because the lacks or cannot again access to the linguistic resources required to expression intended meaning. We have two types of cognitive strategies that subjective of L2 listening research: bottom- up and top-down. Cognitive strategy According to (Derry & Murphy, 1986) is problem-solving technique that learners use to handle the learning tasks and facilitate the acquisition of knowledge or skill. It is related to comprehending and storing input in working memory or long-term memory for later retrieval. Bottom-up strategies include word-for- word translation, adjusting the rate of speech, repeating the oral text, and focusing on prosodic features of the text. It refer to using the incoming input as the basis for understanding the message. Top-down strategies, include predicting, differencing, elaborating and visualization. According to previous research such as (Clark, 1980; Conrad, 1985; Tsui & Fullilove, 1998; O’Malley, Chamot, & Kupper, 1989) showed that advanced learners employ more top-down strategies than beginners Among the cognitive strategies, four strategies will be analyzed here. The important theoretical underpinning to the top-down approach is schema theory. The term of schema first used by the psychologist, Bartlett (1932) said that it had important influence on researchers in the part of speech processing and language comprehension. They like stereotypical mental scripts or scenarios of situations and events, built up from numerous experiences of similar events.

۲.۵ One-way listening versus two way listening
There are two main type of listening, According to (Schmitt,2002) one way, transactional listening is important academic setting, such as lectures and school lessons and this term refer to ‘listening in order to learn’. In other situations in which one- way listening takes place are watching a film or television or listening to the radio, but for the listen the language likely to be of the ‘spoken’ variety and with different purpose. According to (Nunan,1970)it is a monologues for example speech and news broad casts .when listening monologue ,”live” or through media listening is non reciprocal” eavesdropper” on a conversation and listener has no opportunity to answer back. According to (e.g., Mueller, 1980; Herron, 1994; Berne, 1995; Sherman, 1997) Content knowledge is one of the variables that have been assumed to enhance comprehension of an academic lecture. Even though the facilitative role of content knowledge on L2 listening comprehension is intuitively appealing, and studies investigating the effect of content knowledge as a facilitator of comprehension have suggested its promising role on L2 listening comprehension. According to (Schmitt,2002) two way listening is way of interaction (reciprocal, interactive) this assumption reflected upon the listening comprehension and speaking because it involves dialogue or discussion, where all sort of differences come to play. Among those factors two-way listening, easier are lower density of cognitive content and opportunity to request clarification or repetition. According to (Nanun, 1970) Dialogues can be classified according to purpose, they are basically socially / interpersonal or transactional in nature. Interpersonal dialogues classified according to the degree of familiarity between the individuals involved. Flowerdew (1994) and Chaudron (1995) also said that academic listening is different from conversational listening in that academic listening characterized by one-way transactional language that for the purpose to study information and knowledge, whereas conversation listening focuses on maintaining social contact between a speaker and a listener…, Flowerdew (1994) said about the conversational listening situations required background knowledge is general world knowledge for interpreting and comprehending the speech of others, whereas more specific knowledge is needed for academic listening in order to understand texts containing close information, with comparatively long lengths. The ability to conspicuous main points and ignore other points is another key feature of academic listening. According to Hansen (1994) the way to successful academic listening is how quickly listeners can figure out important points of the discourse and distinguish major points from minor points. Richards (1983) contended that the skill to distinguish important information and ignore other information has a higher priority over other skills needed to develop academic listening. Flowerdew, (1994) said that although an ability to distinguish between what is relevant to the main purpose and what is less relevant needed for any type of listening for comprehension this ability is perhaps more necessary for academic listening than for conversational listening. Another discussion between academic listening and conversation listening relates to the frequency of turn-taking conventions. Chaudron (1995) said that academic listening is carefully planned with respect to the content; thus, turn-taking happens only if questions are raised by lecturer or fellow students. On the other hand, turn-taking in conversation as each learners made equal contributions; therefore, turn-taking happens usually in conversational listening activities. O’Malley, Chamot, and Kupper (1989) said about the detailed exploration of L2 learners’ self-reported strategies for listening to academic texts, for example, listening for more general and larger chunks of information instead of explained on word-by-word decoding. They explained that L2 learners want to use different and complex strategies for academic listening is essential to maintain tasks. Note-taking could be a well-known example of strategies that L2 learners employ for academic listening (e.g., Dunkel, 1988; Chaudron, Loschky, & Cook, 1994;

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