diate textbooks. However, too much exposure of abnormally slow rate of English is likely to keep students from improving their listening ability. According to Pyo (2004), the average speech rate of low intermediate school textbooks is130 wpm, which is considerably slower than the natural speed of native speakers (about160 to 190 wpm). Pyo (2004) slow speed actually intended for concerns about low intermediate students’ better understanding and for giving them less stress in the course of second language acquisition. However, the unnaturally sagged speed instead hindered the efficiency of authentic language acquisition. According to (Bachman, 1995; Brown, 2000) in the EFL (English as a Foreign Language) setting as in Korea, it is one of the important factors to be exposed to natural and authentic English with adequate speech rate, In other words, listening to language of relatively low speed could not effective for language acquisition, even after considerations about low intermediate level of teaching and learning. According to (Ahn,1996) the comprehending capacity of elementary students, it is more desirable to put longer pauses between the input – for example, sentences – than to make the whole recording slow. According to Seo (2010) the real-life setting (the natural speed) does not affect listeners’ comprehension in the study showed to high school students with Korea Scholastic Aptitude Test (KSAT).
۲.۱۶ Appropriate speech rate
Although there were many effort about the speech rate ranges of native language. In British and American but numbers of researchers like Hayati,2010; p.108; Zaho,1997) said that ”normal ”average” or ”slow” is far from together and they contended that there is lack of the criteria to decide whether 200WPMis perceived by a given EFL learners as ”average” or ”fast”. Some other researchers can’t describe various speech rate that due to missing references. According to Hayati (2010) the moderately fast speech rate adopted in the post test as something in between (p.110) comparing it to the naturally slowed speech rate and the natural one. According to Zaho (1997) it is developed by listener when assessing the appropriateness of a speech rate to his/her listening objectives. Although subjective speech rate is strongly distinct from the standardized ranges and think of the researchers for instance according to (Blau,1991;Zaho,1997)the speeds perceived by EFL as normal in number of studied fell between 95 to 195 that according to (Tauroza,Allison,1990)slower that the normal ones (150-260WPM). According to Grifiths (1992,1991) his Omani low- intermediate participants different from to his expectations, perceived 250 WPM as normal while considered 200 WPM in as too fast. Zhao said that the participants the freedom to modify the speeds would yield more reliable results concerning the SR effects on the LC of the listeners so by considering the listener as the main point source, and by measuring SR effects in the listener’ modifications rather than performance, Zhao said that achieved the double benefit of controlling for the confounding effect of the listener’s language proficiency level, and accounted for the subjectivity of the SR construct. Although Zhao (1997) said that revolutionizing the SR research to more qualitative approaches, According to Higgins (1996) is the “appropriate rate” .Based on her surveys with Japanese and Omani EFL freshmen, she collected anecdotal data on the different aspects of the internal criteria used by these listeners to decide on the appropriateness of SR. First, the appropriate rate for most of Higgins’ participants synonymous to a slowed SR. One Japanese made clear that “if the speaker speaks too fast, students can’t get the meaning and directions correctly. So I want the speaker to speak slowly so that we understand” (p. 67). So, learners varied listening objectives that fulfilled, according to them, by means of the appropriate SR. One Japanese learner said that he preferred slower rates to improve his pronunciation while another Omani said that slowing the rate would help him enrich his lexical knowledge. So, learners emphasized that the appropriate rate is the one that is fine tuned to their developing listening proficiency. Japanese said that “if I get used to fast speed I want the speaker to speak faster” (p.67). According to (Higgins, 1996, p.66) “the hidden agenda” of each listener tends to shape his/her concept of appropriateness. Based on the discussion of the appropriate rate, one can define it that learner perceives the speed of to be the most facilitative of listening and the most effective in meeting one’s goals, needs and developing abilities. Despite the fact that the subjective view of SR explained part of the enigmatic nature of SR, and offered a more reliable research methodology, it added to the complexity of the investigations of the construct of speech rate being a very individualistic phenomenon
۲.۱۷ Natural rate vs slow rate
Studied about the using natural speech achieved a degree of control over stimulus materials by means of editing techniques. According to (Miller, Maruyama, Beaber , and Valone,1976) said that the persuasiveness of a communication can directly related to the rate that it delivered. More rapid speech found to be more persuasive because a fast talker viewed as more credible. Although Miller ruled out certain alternative explanations (such as the effect of limited opportunity to Kunter argue against a rapid presentation),the stimulus materials used in their experiments closer examination .In both experiments the persuasive messages recorded by the same speaker at either a slow or a fast speech rate. According to (Miller et al, 1976, p. 618) said that this accomplished “by simply instructing the speaker to practice delivering the same speech as rapidly and slowly as possible while controlling his level of enthusiasm and involvement. The stimulus recordings in the two conditions do differ in speech rate, but it is quite likely that they differ in other respects as well .In natural speech, such vocal parameters as amplitude, pitch, and rate tend to vary .According to (Black, 1961) said that rapid speech is likely to be louder and higher pitched than normal speech. It is quite possible that subjects in the Miller study responding to pitch and/or loudness cues as well as to rate. According to (Brown, Strong, & Rencher, 1973, 1974; Smith, Brown, Strong, & encher,1975) studied about the some degree of stimulus control, recent developments in speech synthesis technology permit investigators to vary independently one or more parameters of natural speech. This approach exploited by Brown who manipulated speech rate, mean fundamental frequency, and damental frequency variance, using a computer-based analysis-synthesis system. According to (Smith etal., 1975) said that two important personality dimensions (termed “competence” and “benevolence”) emerged from factor analyses of judgments of such manipulated speech. whereas faster speech rates produced judgments of higher competence but yielded an inverted-U relationship on the benevolence dimension The listening test items in the KSAT which effective for listening comprehension recorded with the speed of around 130-140 wpm (words per minute), According to (Choi,1997) pointed the quite slow compared to natural speediness of native English speakers. education as well as low intermediate, the average speech rate of not only the nationwide English tests but also the school-leveled formative tests, comparatively slow. According to (Goldman-Eisler, 1968; Butcher, 1981; Lass, 1970; Trouvain; Grice, 1999).) Said about the fast speech characteristically has fewer and shorter pauses, for the effect of pauses on the perceived speech rate. These observations support the idea that speech is divided into fewer prosodic units at fast than at normal or slow rates. Thus according to (Rietveld & Gussen hoven 1987) said about the complexity of pitch accents varies between speech rates, with fewer bi tonal pitch accents and more mono tonal ones in fast than in slow speech for its effect on the perceived speech rate. Also, the F0 range is generally reduced in fast speech, although according to (Fougeron & Jun, 1998; Kohler). There is substantial variation across speakers .According to Griffiths (1990) said that he had 15’lower-to-intermediate’ Japanese learners of English listen to three texts at three rates moderately fast (app 200 WPM), average (app 150 WPM), and slow(app 100 WPM) The subjects asked to answer fifteen true-false questions after each passage Each of the 15 subjects had a chance to listen to all three passages at all three rates Griffiths was found ‘lower scores obtained at the fastest SRs (speech rates) on all three texts and the lowest mean score consequently obtained at