l group. So, we can claim that slow speech rate affect students’ listening comprehension. Additional information can be obtained from graph 4.2.in this graph twofold levels of control and experimental variables are in horizontal axis and depended variables of post test are in vertical axis.
Figure4.2. means of listening comprehension in post test in both groups
This graph indicates that there is a significant difference between listening comprehension in experimental group and listening comprehension in control group. Graph perfectly indicates that participants in experimental group, have higher listening comprehension ability after post test comparing to control group with lower ability.
۴.۲. Results of Hypothesis Testing
As mentioned earlier in chapter one, the research question of this study is:
Q1: Does slow speech rate has any effect on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners’ listening comprehension ability?
To answer the research questions, the following assumptions were formulated:
HO1: slow speech rate does not have any effect on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners? listening comprehension ability. According to the findings of the research based on the data in table 4.2, the study concluded that the null hypotheses as “slow speech rate does not have any effect on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners? listening comprehension ability” was rejected, because there is a significant difference between students’ mean scores in their pre-test and post-test in experimental group.
This chapter explained the results of the study and defined the ways used to analyze the data and answered the research question of the research. The data analyses consisted of One-way ANCOVA, pre-tests, post tests and T-tests and the relationship between pre and post tests of each group was calculated by Paired- Sample Test. Regarding the hypotheses, it was made clear that slow speech rate has effect on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners’ listening comprehension ability. The next chapter includes a discussion of the research in more details. It also presents an overview of the study, general discussion, implication of the study, limitations of the study, suggestions for further research and summary.
۵.۱ General Discussion
The current research aimed to examine two different speech rate and listening comprehension of Iranian Intermediate learners. In this part, the results reported in the previous part will be discussed and evaluated in light of previous research on rates of speech, and data are discussed in detail, in terms of the research questions. The major findings provided qualified support for the effectiveness of two different speech rates need two different form of listening comprehension of it. To determine the effect of the various rates of speech in experimental focused the effect of slow speech rate and control group the other one, that data consist of an OPT test and listening scores (pre-and post test), and T-TEST. Mean scores were calculated for the Recall task, the Recognition task. Statistical analyzed to provide answer to the research question and used SPSS. The findings from this study are consistent with research.
The reference speeds used in previous studies (e g Griffiths 1990a, 1990b, 1991, Rader 1991) were arbitrarily chosen by the researchers two different reference (150 WPM and 188 WPM in Griffiths).According to Zaho(1997) it is quite meaningless to say that slower speeds helped or did not help listening comprehension because the perception of speed vanes from one person to another whethe a speed is fast or slow is the result of the interaction between the pausological quality of the speech and listener-internal factors Due to the variations among second language learners, the same passage can be perceived as ‘slow’ or ‘fast’ The speed used by the participants in the present study ranged from 95 WPM to 192 WPM Since the participants were told to use the speed that best suited them and since their scores suggested when they selected their own speed their comprehension improved, it can be assumed that the speed used was the ideal speed for each of them Based on the results of the study, I would argue that ‘reference’ is inside the learner, rather than in the passage. I had questioned whether two different s of rates of speech has more effect on listening comprehension of Iranian Intermediate learners. The result of this research in experimental and control group were showed that mean in experimental group is higher than mean in control group and listening comprehension of covariance showed that there are meaningful difference between experimental and control group. So we can claim that slow speech rate has effect on student’s listening comprehension ability. The paradigm used in this study may be extanded to examine speech rates of learners and listening comprehension of it loop more closely. The graph showed that there are significant difference between listening comprehension in both groups ,after posttest learners in experimental groups have higher listening comprehension ability to control group.
۵.۲ Pedagogical implication
The finding of the study provides some implications for the classroom teachers and researchers interested in the effect of speech rate on listening comprehension. Teachers and learners should know that slow speech rate and natural speech rate have some advantage and disadvantage so they should take advantage of the result of this study. In teaching and learning listening comprehension, we can’t overlooked the speech rate; slow speech rate used as a short path practiced for comprehending natural speech rate. According to Ann (1996) for considering the comprehending capacity of intermediate students it is more desirable to put longer pauses between the inputs.
This research help the teachers to be concerned about their speaking in the classrooms and they should try articulate words more importantly and they should adhere to the conventions of connected speech. Making the EFL learners familiar with different rates of speech through exposure to oral English from the beginning of listening activity is of at most importance. As the results of this study revealed, the students knew the words and to a lesser extent they knew the correct pronunciation of words in isolation by slow speech rate. This may somehow support the result of Goh’s study (2000). Many principles of speech rate simultaneously and not subsuming one or more elements means that these should be practiced with slow speed and not separated from other speed. Exposing the learners to the authentic oral English seems to be a dire need by the learners as they encounter live and recorded oral English in their daily lives. This study reveals that teachers phonologically modify their speech when talking to their learners and these phonological variations and slow speech rate affect nonnative listening comprehension significantly. In addition some of external factors such as L2 classroom environment often learners require to comprehending longer pieces of teachers and contextual level of speech affected comprehension of learners.
۵.۳ Limitation of the study
This current research is not without limitations. This study try to revealed the effect of speech rate on Iranian Intermediate listening comprehension ability. This research has particular limitation. In this study were not considered age and gender. This research was conducted with only about 44 students who belong to one school in limited area. More over their listening ability is rather high as you can find out from the result of this experiment. Therefore, the result can be generalized. In additional to, some other factors, except speech rate, could possibly have an influence on students listening ability such as student’s interest, listening content and so on. This study used only audio input because visual information is less important in lecture situation where emphasis on content(Back,2001).Multiple- choice question technique used in this study has been among the most common for language testing .It criticized by some as an inadequate measurement for listening comprehension. For producing more accurate measurement of comprehension a more holistic instrument, or combination of both was suitable.
۵.۴ Suggestion for further research
According to Slinger and Shohami (1989; 254) the nature of research is such that the more answers are obtained, the more questions arise. Curiosity in L2 acquisition, as in other disciplines, leads researchers to more problems, more questions, and more area of research. In the present study the intermediate students tested and the results showed that they were better on the test of slow speech rate. Perhaps higher intermediate students would be suggested