n informal situations, signals such as gestures, increased loudness, or a explicit remove of pitch are very ambiguous, especially to L2 learners. Fifth, it is very dispute for listeners to concentrate in a foreign language. It is generally known that in listening, even a slight break the attention can impede comprehension. When the text of the listening passage is interesting, it can be easier for listeners to concentrate and follow the passage; however, students sometimes feel that listening is very challenging even when they interested the topic because it needs a lot of effort to figure out the meaning intended by the speaker. Sixth, learning habits focus on the classroom such as a desire to understand the meaning of every word. Teachers oftentimes want students to understand every word they encounter while listening by pronouncing and repeating words clearly and carefully, and by speaking slowly and so forth. As a result, students worried when they fail to understood what a particular word means and discouraged by the failure. So students should patients incompleteness and ambiguous of understanding. At last, comprehension problems arise when students have shortage of contextual knowledge. Even if students understand the main idea of the text, they may still find it difficult to comprehend the whole meaning of the text. Listeners from different cultural backgrounds can also misinterpret nonverbal cues for example facial expressions, gestures, or tone of voice. For the purpose of overcoming listening comprehension problems, learners need to develop techniques known as “listening strategies. These strategies are mental processes that enable learners comprehend the aural text despite their shortage of knowledge. Listening strategies include inferring, elaboration, and regulating and monitoring comprehension, and they are discussed in detail in the next section.
۲.۹ Relation between listening and speaking
The learners of foreign language scared that they won’t be able to perceive everything that their teachers, other speakers, on a tape say. One of the important things wishes it is the speakers’ reduction of their speed. According to Chastain (1988, p.195) that “the reduction in speech can be accomplished primarily by speaking in phrases and lengthening the pauses between phrases”. According to (Carrier, 1999; Derwing and Munro, 1997; Tauroza and Allison,1990; Zhao, 1997) Speed of speech is one of the key factors affecting listening comprehension in second language learners. Vandergrift (2006) said that listening requires to deal with spoken language that is often unplanned and typically exhibits short idea units. Listening takes place in real time and is ephemeral, so a listener did not have the option for reviewing the information presented and has little control over the rate of speech at which the speech spoken. Researchers considered speech rate to be one of the key factors that influence on listening comprehension of college academic lectures. Griffiths (1990) said that a question about which rates of speech most facilitate comprehension of L2 learners with different levels of L2 proficiency. Griffiths (1990), Tauroza and Allison (1990) said that what extent of variation in the speech rate L2 learners cope with for comprehension. They challenged about the standard range of speech rates brought by Pimsleur (1977) doesn’t use to different speech events of English because it limited to one particular different of speech (i.e., radio news) and because it constructed on the basis of French speakers as well as English speakers. According to Zhao (1997) ” listening comprehension study related to speech rates with a different angle”. Instead of emphasized on the impact of various rates defined by researchers, he gave the control of the speech rate to the students and administered an individual-based listening test. Unlike some studies, the effect of speech rate measured by the listeners’ behavior of modification instead of their comprehension. Four different listening conditions in which L2 learners controlled the presentation of input designed and administered to 15 learners of L2. Results of the study was showed that L2 learners better understand when they control of the speech rate, and L2 learners were tended to vary speech rates when possible, depending on the problematic of the text. According to Zhao (1997, p.62) “in order to better understand how speech rate is related to listening comprehension, researchers should consider students as unique individuals, who operate with different perceptions and internal references”. According to (White, 1987) when nonnative listeners trouble in understanding a message, they usually complain that the language spoken too fast .According to Flaherty (1979) and Kelch (1985) slowing down the flow of speech is one of the characteristics that facilitated comprehension for nonnative speakers. Speaking fluency is speech rate which has been the focus of recent studies in second language learning and teaching. Researchers and instructors are often controlled native speakers’ speech rate to assist learners’ listening comprehension. Many linguists, researchers and teachers around the world contended that listening comprehension affected by many factors like unfamiliar lexis, speech rate and back ground knowledge. They said that listening comprehension and speech rate related together and as speech rate increases, listening comprehension decreases. According to Stenly (1978) the different effect of speech rate on listening comprehension. According to Khatib’s (2010) slowing down the speech rate affected on listening comprehension positively for identification of word to some extent. This identification based encoding a storing of the source of information and message in memory for later retrieval of word recognition, lexical access and listening comprehension. According to (Feldere & Floccia, 1999; Lass, 1984) explaining the features of connected speech can help the learners. On the one hand researchers such as Griffiths (1990) said that slower speech rate, when aided with other simplifications in syntax and rhetorical structure, will improve ESL (English as a second Language) learner’s listening comprehension. Some researchers believe all principles of connected speech simultaneously and not subsuming one or more elements means that these features should be practiced with moderately fast speed and not from each other. Exposing the learners to the authentic oral English in their daily lives English seems to be a dire need by the learners as they encounter live and recorded oral. According to Zaho (1997) some valuable about the speech rates. He added speech rate controlled individually rather than by groups. Slow speech rate was used when native speakers talk to non-native speakers, For example he observed that they tend to resort to foreigner talk, which characterized with among other simplifications such as syntax and register, slower speech rate According to (C.F. chaudron, 1988; woold ridge, zool) when the foreign language instructors speak to beginning or even intermediate level learners in the classroom setting theirs speech are also likely to be slower then when they talk to advance level learners While such foreigner or teacher talk many have been used intuitively or intentionally native speakers or instructors to provided more comprehensible input to learners.
۲.۱۰ General framework about the speech rate
According to (Gay, 1981;Kuehn and Moll, 1976) there are suggestion at both the kinematics the activity in muscles change in complex ways with differences in rate .For example, According to (Kuent and Moll, 1972; Gay, 1981)with increases in speaking rate, there reports of reduction in articulator movement amplitude with velocity unchanged or increased. According to (Abbs, 1973)increases in peak velocity with amplitude unchanged, and reductions in both a humans , According to Cooke( 1980) increase in rate result in increase in the slope of movement amplitude relationship (with maximum velocity presented as a function amplitude and velocity .According to Gold man Eisler (1968) some of the studies of spontaneous speech that are relevant to this question we want to think of speech as flow a stream of sound ; Gold man -Eisler said that spoken language is really fragmentented and that flow of sound is interrupted by hesitations or pauses for response that study described the picture stories most of subjects spent between 40and 50 percent of their total speaking so studied about the rate that language produced is important. The researchers believe that this due to the features of fast connected speech blurred the speech. According to Zhao (1997), Griffiths (1991), and Chaudron (1980) whether what the course accrued could apply to new situations and authentic materials with