‘input hypothesis'(1985). There were two homogeneous groups of students taking ‘Oral Translation 3’. The selected materials was authentic American English spoken by fluent native speakers in the programs. The students worked with in a well-equipped language laboratory Based on the results of this study there were first, the experimental group did not do any better than the control group and second, the students were not able to apply the benefits of slowing down the speech to authentic texts and for speeches delivered at a normal rate. According to Grosjean (1972) said that the increase of speed addressed to NNSs intermediate proficiency from 147wpm to 169 wpm led to a 14.65 decrease in listening comprehension. At the slowest rate, 96 wpm the subjects incapable to recall 56% of sentence details. According to Chauron (1979) said that one of the important features of listening comprehension is the great speed accompanying connected speech. At a normal speed a new word is uttered at the rate of 300msc which needs to be transformed into lexical units and then realized at the higher structural units. Derwing and Munro (2001) said about an experiment on the suitability of speech rate in case of Mandarin learners of English. They used a rating scale ranging from too slow to too fast.
۲.۱۴ Standard speech rate in English
There are various opinions from many researchers about how to determine normal and natural speed of speaking. There are many units when they measure the exact speech rate. According to Han (1998) showed that speech units according to how to measure the speed in table 1., wpm (words per minute) will be used as a unit to measure speech rate for convenience .According to Pimsleur, Hancook, and Fieurey (1977, Jung, 2001) considered to be desirable. They divided into 5 speech rates after they studied 15 French news anchors and 15 American news anchors, which show
. Therefore, the average speed (160 to 190 wpm) is used as a natural, normal and authentic speed of English listening in this study. Given that the natural speed is 160 to 190 wpm in the normal environment, the average speech rate of low intermediate school English textbooks is much slower than the nor mal speed .According to Jung (2009) showed the speech rate of low-intermediate school English textbooks from the 3rd to the 6th grade. The average speech rate of 3rd grade was 114 wpm, and it got faster as the grade got higher. The 4th Grade is 128 wpm, and the 5th is 139 wpm and finally, the speed of the 6th Grade text book is 153 wpm. From year 2011, they did not use the English textbook published by government any more. All low intermediate schools in Korea started to use the textbooks that authorized by Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST). There are between 6 and 14 different kinds of textbooks according to each grade. Nonetheless, the speech rate of the authorized textbooks is not presumably very different from the government published ones. It is because the average speech rate of the NSAT is around 128.2 wpm which is the barometer of the textbooks. You can see, the average speed of the NSAT 2011 is 128.2 wpm, which is abnormally low, compared to the natural speed of native speakers see in table of 3. According to( Pimsleur,1977;Tauroza and Allison,1990)studied about the standard speech rate in spoken British and American English and selection of these ranges as regarding normal speed in English was formed them and they are the most widely known to teachers and researcher in EFL field.(p.90).According to Pimsleur(1977)contended that normal speech for American English speakers.. According to Tauroza (1990) said that there are some restrictions. Such as some of the information works was not representative enough they form monologues of fifteen radio news messengers therefore this ranges for ”reading_ aloud” were not common to other speech conversation. According to Pimsleur (1977) said bout the ”word per minute” this method by number of researchers as unreliable supported. Another researcher such as Rader (1990) described the length of word that is not fixed reason for different speech categories. For example indefinite ”an” n’t equal to word such as ”antiestablishment”(p.44).Two researchers like Allison’s and Tauroza (1990)studied about the ”word per minute” or ”syllable per minute” that is reliable and worked on the table of standardized of speech rate. According to Pimsleur, (1977); Tauroza, Miller (1990) they avoid some of the limitation that researchers collected corpus of spoken British English that available in Hong Kong included: read-aloud monologues, informal conversation, interview, live lectures. This information showed that range of Tauroza was 125_230 WPM opposed to Pimsleur’s ”average of130_220WPMand he were not generlizable to other speech categories. They pointed that ” “syllable per minute” rather than “word per minute” was a more reliable unit of measurement. According to Tauroza, Allison(1990)said that these ranges based on speech varieties and a potential of error cared against when transferring of ranges to other speaking or learning contexts because the reported values affected by the research context. Some other researchers believe that all speech events were not classifiable under the four types they investigated they related to categories of British English that was based on availability and EFL in HongKong that is required for learning for the level of institutions. Although there are some other threatened exist for example preparedness vs spontaneity degree of speech formality turn taking and characteristics of speakers like age, gender and socio cultural background .As a result arriving the standardized speech rate is no practical.
Table(2) :Measuring unit
Phonemes per second
Syllabus per second
Syllabus per minute
words per second
Words per minute
Table(3): Standard speech rate
Number of words
Item total :20
۲.۱۵ Speech rate and interlocutor
According to Gold man (1968) rate of articulation measure as number of syllables per minute of the time spend in vocal activity. He contended that although individuals the rate of articulation is remarkably constant, even in different situation. Goil-man said that what is experienced as a variation in the speed of talking with in individual turns to careful analysis of variation amount of pausing “what is experience as an increase of speed in talking is therefore due largely to the closely of gap”(p.26).There is an important point within an individual that rate of speech seems to be constant considerable in variance: ”considering that the mechanics of speech production are in the normal adult a skill of high order and stability of characteristic of skillful performances. The relative about variance of the rate of speech is not surprising” (p.26). Because there are individual differences in rates of speech but the rate an individual remains constant. There is an ideal subject for the study of rate of production in two languages that people are practiced and fluent in both languages. There is a special group of people that fluent in speech. parents have primary mode of communication with each other and with hearing as well as with other children thus hearing of child may learn the language as a native language .He or she may learn spoken language from older hearing children in family, from relatives, or from neighbors and children on street. According to (HSK Syllabus 1998, 2001 and 2003), speech rates for the basic, elementary-intermediate and advanced level tests are 120 – 170,170 -220 and 180-260 characters (syllables) per minute, respectively. Added up include many beginning level CFL textbooks such as Integrated Chinese (Yao, etc., 2005), which provide audio recordings of the same learning texts at different speech rates .According to (Rivers, 1982) In spite of the importance of speech rate for improving English listening comprehension and fluency, there is no such a concept of English speaking and listening speed in the English low-intermediate School Curriculum. According to (Jung, 2009; Pyo, 2004) the speech rate of listening items with in the nationwide test for the 6th grade students is relatively slow which probably affected and was also affected by the speech rate of the majority of slow