normal and in some cases with moderately fast speech rate. According to Lass (1984), Brown (1990), and Roach (1991) explaining the features of connected speech can help the learners. According to Won-kyung(2013) the natural speed of English is not the obstacle for elementary students to understand English, rather it may improve their listening comprehension and give them more chances to be exposed with authentic English .According to (Korman2005) the effect of the two rate measures on the perceived speech rate compared in two listening on the basis of a set of intonation with carefully balanced and realized phone rates, selected from a German database of spontaneous speech. Thus the balance between input-oriented and output-oriented (communicative) may different at fast versus slow speech rates, the effect of articulation rate compared both for fast and for slow phrases from the database. The effect of the listeners’ own speaking habits is also investigated to evaluate if listeners’ perception based on a projection of their own behavior as a speaker. It showed that listener judgments reflect both the intended and realized phone rates, and that their judgments are independent of the constraint balance and their own speaking habits.
۲.۱۱ Defining speech rate terminology
The speed of input delivery – termed technically as speech rate – is one of the acoustic-temporal characteristics of the aural text. In the rate specialist literature, SR was classified as either belonging to the speaker’s characteristics (Ishler, 2010) or to the text features (Rubin, 1994) depending on the mode of the language delivery. According to Higgins (1996, p.64) said that “the total sum of the temporal variables of articulation time, blank and filled pauses”. The branch of LC research that examines SR and the other temporal variables is the Specialist Temporal Variables (STV) research. The Operational Definition of SRs. Given that the standardized “normal,” “fast,” and “slow” SR ranges reported by Tauroza and Allison (1990) may be un generalizable to the IGCSE setting targeted, being highly context-bound, the SR range considered as the “normal” in this study fell between 124-150 WPM. This range represents the speeds preset by The Cambridge International Exams. Editing the aural texts included in this study by inserting 3-second empty pauses reduced the SR range to 120-136 WPM, whereas adopting the deliberate articulation yielded a slower SR range of 70-124 WPM. These two SR ranges represent the “slow” SRs in the current study.
Table 1 shows the “normal” and the “slow” SR ranges adopted. Table 1 Note. NS: normal speeds, 3-Sp: 3-second pauses, DA: deliberate articulation The Listening
۲.۱۲ Speech rate and Preceding research
The modification of speech rate which had investigated by other researchers before Krashen put forth his input hypotheses is (Anderson-Hsieh et al., 1988; Blau, 1990; Boyle, 1984; Carver, 1973; Chiang and Dunkel, 1992; Chaudron, 1979; Conrad, 1989; Derwing and Munro, 2001; Flowerdew and Miller, 1992; Foulke, 1968; Friedman and Johnson, 1971; Griffiths, 1990; Grosjean, 1972; Stanley, 1978; Stitch, 1971; Zhao, 1997). Saved for Blau, (1990) and Derwing and Munro (2001) the other researchers said that speed modification facilitates listening comprehension According to (Krashen, 1985) second language learners of especially beginner’s level need to have certain amount of comprehensive input. In the EFL setting as in Korea, providing English learners with authentic input is necessary, and this makes the exposure of natural speed more important. According to (Rivers, 1982, re-quotation from Choi, 2010; Shin, 2002) Language learners should be taught from the beginner’s level with the normal speaking rate. Learners of the beginning level, it is sometimes effective to articulate pronunciation word by word, and it is no more useful but prohibiting learners from listening comprehension. Because the learners accustomed to the segmented sounds, they should expose to the normal sound speed. So learners can have more chances to listen to authentic English, in EFL setting as in Korea, and further improve their proficiency. According to Blau (1990) although slow exposition helps learners to improve listening ability to a certain extent, the result was not statistically significant. According to Griffiths (1990) the effectiveness of fast (200 wpm) and slow (100 wpm) rate on the listening comprehension for 15 non-native English teachers of low- intermediate school. His research concluded that the fast speech rate resulted in a significant reduction in comprehension, but that scores on passages showed at slow rates did not significantly differ from those delivered at average rates (150 wpm). There also has been some preceding research about Korean students for the effect of the speech rate to English learners. According to Seo (2010) said about that effectiveness of high school students’ listening comprehension, with four different speech rates (100, 140, 180, 220 wpm), and she concluded that there was no significant difference between 326 Choi, Won-Kyung students of three levels (high, intermediate, low).According to Choi (2010) studied 188 subjects from two high schools in Seoul with Test of English Proficiency developed by Seoul National University (TEPS) pilot listening test. He used 5 different speed rates ranging from 123 to 185 wpm, and showed that there was no significant difference according to such speech rates, through different levels of students. The same results found on another study of 70 female high school students with the experiment between 141.3 and 166.8 wpm According to (Heo & Yoon, 2003) slower rate could not guarantee higher comprehension. According to Choi (2009) almost research as above, but with 101middle school students in Busan. She let subjects listen to 3 different speech rates (108, 129, 163 wpm), and the result showed that different speech rates did not influence students’ listening comprehension. There was also research done with low-intermediate students. According to Jung (2009) studied the effectiveness resulting from exposing speech rates. She also said that there was no significance between different speeds. Her research showed with 3 students of each level and too narrow ranged speeds. So she used the test items that combined with listening and writing questions, and it lowered the validity of the study. Although there were several studied for the purpose of to show the correlation between language speed and learning, there were few research targeting elementary students. Even those research targeting elementary students could be hardly generalized statistically.
۲.۱۳ speech rate and different effect on listening
Empirical research on the effects of varying speech rate on foreign language listening comprehension has produced mixed results ( Rost 2005, Zhao 1997). On the one hand, researchers such as Griffiths (1990) have reported that slower speech rate, when aided with other simplifications in syntax and rhetorical structure, will improve ESL (English as a Second Language) learners’ listening comprehension. On the other hand, Blau (1990) has found that simply reducing speech rate from faster to slower do not improve the listening comprehension of intermediate and advanced level EFL learners. According to Jun Da (2003) study of speech rates of two popular beginning level CFL Text books in U.S. colleges and high schools measured the speech rates of audio materials accompanying two beginning level and they prepare audio materials for their students. For example, instructors can prepare audio materials at similar rates for use in achievement tests where test reliability is a major concern. They can also prepare materials at (much) faster rates that are more likely found in speeches among native speakers. He studied about that current pedagogical needs in CFL classrooms. Despite its relevance for CFL classroom pedagogy, they don’t suggested that those measured speech rates should be the appropriate rates for beginning level CFL instruction and learning. More explicit research is needed to determine if varying speech rates will any effects on CFL learners’ listening comprehension if there is indeed a positive effect that are the optimal speech rates for learners at different proficiency levels. According to Khatib (2010) studied the effect of controlling speech rate on listening comprehension of Iranian students majoring in English. It was related the Krashen’s